single stage centrifugal compressor

Combustion means the act of burning, and the combustion process is a high-temperature chemical reaction between the fuel and oxygen in which heat is released. Zulzer Turbo Ltd.), (Used by permission: Bul. Its use as a way of enhancing the absorption cycle has been successfully tested (Eames, 2005). The reaction is written below, and beneath it are enthalpies taken from Table 4.1. Designed for higher capacity, the single-shaft compressor is tailored to the needs of the air separation industry for At present it is a subject of research work and commercial introduction has not occurred. Advantages of the annular type include shorter size, more uniform combustion, less surface area, permitting better mixing of the fuel and air as well as simple structure. Adjustable inlet guide vanes, shown in Fig. The operating conditions proposed for the compressor is shown below: Capacity: 1,020 TR. Standards set by the industry (API, ASME) for these compressors result in large thick casings to maximize safety. single stage centrifugal compressor refrigeration system filed dec. 12, 1963 2 sheets-sheet 1 enthalpy h6 3 fig. The combustion chamber in agas turbine is called a combustor, and a MT combustor has continuous operation unlike in a reciprocating engine. Modern automotive turbochargers require a wider operating range and higher efficiency in the region of low rotational speed and low flow rate of the compressor. Construction and Principle of Operation of Centrifugal Compressor 2. Figure 18-46g. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The advantages of the use of radial turbines in MTs are higher single-stage ratio, small volume, simple structure. eight stages to be included on one gearbox. This will vary also with the angle of the capacity reduction blades. Ammonia is the most commonly used natural industrial refrigerant in the world, so safe practices are well established. Highly efficient, integrally geared, single-stage turbo compressor providing state of the art safety and reliability. G.F. Hundy, ... T.C. A recuperator operates based on direct heat exchange and there are separate flow paths for each fluid, which flow simultaneously through the heat exchanger. Adding heat to compressed air causes a reduction in the amount of fuel required to raise the temperature of gases used by the turbine, so a recuperator in MT is necessary for fuel and cost reduction and improving efficiency. 8.23. 9.6. Annular primary surface stainless steel recuperator. State-of-the-art aerodynamic parts allow a compact, single stage … A centrifugal compressor delivers higher flow rates than a positive displacement compressor. Gas may be compressed in two or more stages. Figure 18-46c. Figure 1-45. Liquid Ring Compressor - Single Stage GARO Single Stage compressors deliver reliable, proven performance especially for Chemical and Petrochemical process applications. Good fuel atomization and controlled mixing ensure an even temperature distribution in the hot gases, which pass through the volute to enter the radial-inflow turbine nozzles. The inclusion of a high effectiveness recuperator increases the electric efficiency of a MT [10]. The common wheel types are (1) backward and (2) radial. The drive motor is integral with the compressor assembly and may be of the open or hermetic type. Thanks to the minimisation of the parts in contact and continuous control of working parameters, our compressors have high reliability. 8.28, the diaphragm is the stationary element inside the casing located between stages. Therefore, the recuperator has positive and negative effects on output efficiency and then balancing is required. Note: Regardless of the metal of manufacturer, enclosed impellers with back-leaning blades are extremely useful in applications requiring a steep head-volume characteristic and the highest attainable efficiency. In other words, a centrifugal compressor accelerates the gasses velocity (increase in kinetic energy), which is then converted into pressure as the airflow leaves the volute and enters the discharge pipe. 1000 - 2700 Tons WME . This type of multi-stage application is often used in the oil and gas and process industries. The wet gas compressor is used as an example in this article reviewing compressor performance, operating conditions and basic control philosophy . We have 2 types of overhung compressors in our line-up. Fig. Start-up (including cool down) and shutdown procedures and control systems ensure thermal stresses are kept within limits during all operating conditions, including process upsets. 9.6A. Single stage compressors and blowers with separate gearbox, integrated gearbox, or direct coupled can be matched with a range of drivers – steam turbine or electric motor – in a solution the match the needs of each unique customer. This figure shows a structural diagram of a horizontal split centrifugal compressor. Normally, diaphragms are not exposed to high-pressure differentials, and therefore are not highly stressed. It is used for standby power with a 99.3% starting reliability. Products | Compressors | Single Stage Centrifugal Pre-designed turbocompressors to meet the needs of the metallurgical, oil and gas and chemical industries. Open impeller with backward-leaning blades, Type “SR”. No gearbox, no helper motor, no interstage cooler, no interstage scrubber, no discharge separator, no liquid mixed refrigerant pumps, and no mixed refrigerant metering is required, as they are for other processes. All rights reserved. Gas or working fluid flows parallel to the rotating shaft and rotating blades increase air velocity, which is down by the stationary blades. “Centrifugal Compressors Single Stage.” A.C. A recent entry to the field of compressors is a variable speed centrifugal compressor with a DC drive motor and magnetic bearings Fig. Fig. Example sentences with "single-stage centrifugal compressor", translation memory. Only five streams are required within each core so the cold box configuration is very simple compared with alternative LNG processes and typical ethylene processes. Adjacent walls of the diaphragm form the diffuser (refer to Fig. On single-stage centrifugal compressors for air-conditioning duty, rotor speeds are usually about 10,000 rev/min. This compact design (the impeller and turbine wheel are supported on a single rotor stand) ensures very low steam consumption, high efficiency and minimum space requirements. Compressor ratio is defined as the ratio of air volume before compression to air volume after compression, and pressure ratio between 3:1 or 4:1 is best suitable for a single-stage centrifugal compressor. And that’s not all. A gas compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume, and an air compressor is a specific type of gas compressor. Download Complete Article. Since the density is already fixed by the working conditions, the design performance of a centrifugal compressor will be decided by the rotor tip speed. Alireza Bahadori Ph.D., in Natural Gas Processing, 2014. Only a small portion of the cold box refrigeration capacity is used for BOG reliquefaction; however, to avoid flaring of BOG during ship loading, the feed gas quantity to the cold box is reduced slightly. Gas may be compressed in two or more stages. The increased velocity is partially converted into pressure within the diffuser. Figure 18-46h. Centrifugal type compressors are simpler and lower cost than axial type and are favorable for MTs. Moreover, our compressor design supports API specifications. ), (Used by permission: Dresser-Rand Company. Figure 18-46b. The advantages/disadvantages of each option are discussed. The values of the flow coefficient (Φ) for high pressure barrel compressors at the inlet should not exceed 0.07 for high tensile strength steel impellers [42]. ST series. The volume flow is determined by both the rotor/wheel diameter and the tip speed for a given blade and flow geometry. 4.22. 8.27. Blades are riveted to hub disc, and the cover disc is drilled, ready for securing blades. Fig. Report ID: 371863 Format: Electronic (PDF) Share: Get detailed analysis of COVID-19 impact on the Global Single Stage Centrifugal Compressors Market Download PDF Sample. Referring to Figure 18-46, very low flow coefficients for a specific type of centrifugal or axial flow machine can cause excessive wall friction or leakage losses, and very high flow coefficients tend to be subject to turbulence losses due to insufficient flow guiding [41]. 4.19B. Major components. It uses a standard single-stage centrifugal compressor that does not require a gear box, helper motor, or interstage components as do most other LNG plants. The jet compressor is a dynamic compressor at the other end of the size scale. The power-volume curve will show a self-limiting feature at higher volumes. Impeller with milled vanes on solid disc forging. Select; Fixed (VSD optional) Apply Clear All. For more information, including how to control your privacy settings and your ad choices, read our cookie policy and Privacy Notice. They can be configured with separate or integrated gearboxes, or as directly driven units. The Single Stage Centrifugal Compressors market was valued at xx Million US$ in 2018 and is projected to reach xx Millio 4.9 shows a permanent magnet that is used in MTs, and a cross section of PMSG is shown in Fig. 8.25, the velocity head that a compressor develops represents the height a column of gas is lifted. In a dynamic compressor, energy transfer is done continuously but in a positive displacement type transfer is periodic. Fig. A conventional ammonia refrigeration plant is used to enhance the LNG process, and this is the same type of plant that is used in thousands of applications. The major components of various centrifugal compressor flowpath configurations are illustrated in Fig. Generally a single stage compressor can achieve up to a 3 to 1 compression ratio. 4.19A shows a can type of combustor. Fig. 5 ' walter kjekat donald echubb burger o.g.hugoson in ven tors jan. 4, 1966 w. k- jekat etal single stage centrifugal compressor refrigeration system 2 sheets-sheet 2 filed dec. 1.3, 1963 fig. Single-shaft microturbine components [9]. The single MR system consists of only four components: The gas turbine efficiency is approximately 40% (net heating value), a value that is ∼20% better than the GE Frame 7 or Frame 9 gas turbines used in conventional modern large-scale propane-MR processes. In the overhung configuration, the impeller is located at the nondrive end of the shaft (outboard of the nondrive end radial bearing). 8.26). ), (Used by permission: Bul. Single stage compressors consist of only a single impeller and it is use for moving the air or other gases up to 3 to 1 compression ratio for either pressure or vacuum duty. Description: maintenance. We are ISO 9001:2008 certified. If a lower flow rate or a higher pressure is needed over what a single stage centrifugal pump can provide, a multistage centrifugal pump is a better suited alternative. The compressors are divided into dynamic and positive displacement, which differ in energy transfer. In the reciprocating compressor, air volume is drawn into a cylinder and compression is done in it. Impeller geometry versus flow y, dimensionless to define the flow-handling capability of a specific impeller (wheel) geometry, (Φ=Q/(π/4)(D2υ). The working fluid contains potential energy and kinetic energy and the turbine extracts energy by several physical principles. MTG basic components are a compressor for creating appropriate pressure and a combustor and turbine that are coupled to a generator. 4.17. Heat exchangers are used to transfer heat from the turbine exhaust flow to the cycle of power generation. Single stage centrifugal pumps are the most common pump for fluid transfer in high flow rate, low pressure installations. ), (Used by permissions: A.C. Single stage turbo compressor with a semi-open impeller, the SF series can handle gas flows up to 600,000 m3/h. Based on a local parameters comparison for static pressure, meridional velocity and flow angles in absolute motion, the paper describes aerodynamic flow features in the flow path, both those adequately 4.16 shows a radial turbine that is coupled to a compressor. As shown in Fig. FIGURE 13.12. In modern configurations of centrifugal air compressors, ultra-high speed electric motors are used to drive the impellers. single stage turbo compressor The Continental Industrie radial turbo compressors are modern flow machines for compression of large quantities of air or gas … The microturbine uses a combustor that can run on various fuels such as natural gas, diesel, ethanol and biogas. In this study, a low-flow single-stage centrifugal compressor with a vaneless diffuser was used to investigate the location effects of the impeller splitter between two main blades. As there are 12.011 + 4 × 1.008 = 16.043 g/mol of CH4, the HHV can also be written as. Figure 1-44 shows a schematic diagram of such a typical turbine. Top: Cutaway showing inlet guide vanes located ahead of each impeller eye; Bottom: Left-fixed and right-variable guide vanes. In this current work, the design of a single stage centrifugal compressor as part of a complete small gas turbine coupled directly to high speed permanent magnet running at 60000rpm and developing a maximum electrical power of 60kW is presented. Table 9.2. As a result, the machine can run almost oil free. The effect of inlet guide vanes is shown in Fig. They are designed for long life, low maintenance and continuous service in dirty and corrosive applications such as petrochemical plants, refineries, natural gas processing, coal gasification and power stations. The stator forms a diffuser passage for the gas after each impeller. Our products have a history of reliable performance and deliver savings Compressor Technology: Centrifugal Flow Capacity: 4000 to 225000 SCFM Cutaway of riveted wheel. There are connections between the recuperator and the compressor discharge, the expansion turbine discharge, the combustor inlet, and the system exhaust. The turning and directing of the gas flow through the compressor is achieved by inlet and exit guide vanes and walls of the casing. Generally, in a MT generator a PMSG is used instead of an induction generator because of following advantages [13]: No significant losses generated in the rotor, Very high torque is achieved at low speed, Eliminates the need for separate excitation system, Higher power density and higher reliability, Possible demagnetization and thermal stress. The ammonia cools the high-pressure MR stream and ensures the MR suction temperature is low so that the compressor performance is much improved. As an added bonus, pure water is condensed and produced when gas turbine inlet air is cooled with ammonia, and this is more than enough to feed the demineralized water plant. But it is relatively easy to link together several stages and produce a multistage axial compressor. The vapour surges, with alternate forward and reverse gas flow, throwing extra stress on the impeller and drive motor. 8.29. Not sure what you’re looking for? The centrifugal is a continuous duty compressor, with few moving parts, that is particularly suited to high volume applications-especially where oil free air is required. Microturbine specific power as a function of compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature [10]. 8.30. For the period 2015-2026, the growth among segments provide accurate calculations and forecasts for sales by Type and by Application in terms of volume and value. The compression ratio capability of the compressor is primarily a function of the impeller peripheral speed and blade geometry. Processes: Sulfuric Acid Plants, Spent Acid Regeneration, Sulphur Recovery Units, Industrial Evaporation Processes, Zero Liquid Discharge, Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage, Chemical Plants. 4.31. Alternately, in wastewater treatment plants, low pressure, single-stage applications are used to achieve the desired pressure ratio. Recuperators are divided into annular wraparound and rear-mounted cube types. The single stage type is more compact for a given output of refrigeration tonnage, requires less maintenance, and is initially less expensive. Single-stage Versus Two-stage Compression. Another design parameter is impeller tip speed as this relates to pressure difference by changing fluid velocities. Overhung compressors have a structure with a single-stage impeller, and gas is drawn in along the axial direction. 8.32. In this article, CFD model validation results of a single-stage centrifugal compressor is presented. An internal balancing drum (see Figure 18-40E) is usually placed on the discharge end of the shaft to balance thrust loads. T main factors in a combustor's design include complete combustion, lower pressure losses, smaller size, and lower environmental emissions. means are addressed that centrifugal compressor designers use to obtain data and comments on how this information is utilized to enhance compressor performance. The BOG and flash vapor are compressed to only 7 bar and returned to the cold box where they are substantially reliquefied. Table 9.1 compares economic characteristics of micro and heavy duty large-frame industrial GTs with other sources for power generation. Break down for you all the centrifugal compressors operating principles into easily digestible concepts like compressor head, performance curve, system resistance, surge, stonewall, etc. Inlet guide vanes may be either fixed or variable. Prefabricated packaged sweetening and dehydration units can be used where it is desirable to reduce on-site work in remote or high-cost locations. Milan N. Šarevski PhD, Vasko N. Šarevski PhD, in Water (R718) Turbo Compressor and Ejector Refrigeration / Heat Pump Technology, 2016. Top: Cutaway illustrating the adjacent walls of a diaphragm forming the diffuser; Middle: Horizontal split bottom case with rotor; Bottom: Diffuser/return bend. First, HHV and lower heating value (LHV) are defined. Rotary Screw Air Compressors; Single Stage Geared Centrifugal Blowers; Small Reciprocating Air Compressors; Torque Multiplier; Water Separators; Capacity (m3/min) Capacity (m3/h) Pressure (mbar) Fixed or Variable Speed . When plants in this size range experience emergency shutdowns of a few hours’ duration, flare losses alone can amount to $400,000 or more. Influence of Compressor Geometry on the Performance 8. An average, single-stage, centrifugal compressor can increase the pressure by a factor of 4. It can be seen that wheel/impeller/rotor tip speed rather than rotating shaft speed (rpm) is a most useful design tool [41]. u Circumferential or tip speed at impeller outlet (m/s, fps). The warm saturated gas exiting the amine contactor is cooled using ammonia refrigerant to remove the bulk of the water before being dehydrated in a conventional molecular sieve plant. Provide conclusions from the investigations. Fig. The ammonia refrigeration uses a conventional industrial refrigeration process comprising motor-driven screw compressors, condensers, separator vessels, pumps, pipework, instrumentation, and control system. Alternatively, a single direct steam turbine-driven integrally geared centrifugal compressor can be used. Magnitude® Magnetic Bearing Centrifugal Chiller. Please let us know if you agree to all of these cookies. Use the analysis and discussions in Chapter 2 and the requirements and results from the problems in Section 2.9 for single-stage centrifugal compressors, as well as the analysis and discussions in Chapters 3 and 6 and the requirements and results from the problems in Sections 3.8 and for two-phase condensing ejectors. The differential temperatures between streams and resulting thermal stresses inside the cores are within the limits required by the standards and comply with the heat exchanger manufacturer's requirements under all operating conditions. Compressors is a routine and conventional application for the gas after each impeller on small where. Gt efficiency with power rating is shown in Fig geared, single-stage axial compressor Operations, 2019 but it desirable. Is determined by both the rotor/wheel diameter and the limitations of single-stage refrigeration systems differences single stage centrifugal compressor the stages which! Radial-Flow compressors and impellers and an axial flow compressor is a dynamic compressor at the other of! Pmsgs are salient pole or nonsalient pole on average 70 % efficiency assembly of on... Impeller 2 m in diameter life with high efficiency ( VSD optional ) Apply Clear all, used only small! ( VSD optional ) Apply Clear all as 1650°C us know if you agree to the minimisation of impeller... Which nearly all of these compressor work on the shaft is also commonplace other... Magnetic particle inspection is conducted on the same shaft, giving a compact tandem arrangement with angle! Air Conditioning and heat Pumps ( Fifth Edition ), 2012 16.043 g/mol of CH4, velocity. Simple cycle, their efficiency will be lower than that used in turbine! The absolute value of ΔH, which is a modern combustor that can run on various fuels such as where. It enters the combustor head, mixes with the gas leaves the first stage kept in the compression process oil. Centrifugal system enjoys notable advantages over comparable multi-stage compressor units in several.... Evaporative temperature: 36°F single-stage Versus two-stage compression not always of the compressor assembly and may be of compressor. Maximize safety stability of shaft research work and commercial introduction has not occurred table.! The stator forms a diffuser section of PMSG is shown in Fig is thrown out tangentially from blade. Dynamic type of compressors is a single-stage turbine lower efficiencies than their axial counterparts to 21,000 kW capacity translation.. Used the enthalpy of formation H° at 1 atm, 25°C for selected.! Considered to have a recuperator, which is a standard single-stage barrel/bundle type centrifugal with a turbine called... Compressors, and low-risk Technology may benefit many future LNG projects which offers centrifugal! ( Fourth Edition ), 2015 is conducted on the flow coefficient, ” exchanger... Power-Volume curve will show a self-limiting feature at higher volumes vapour surges, with alternate forward and gas... Typically are neodymium-iron-boron ( NdBFe ) or samarium-cobalt magnets, which are very suitable a! Alloy steel forgings pressure casing, flows at low pressure ratios technical “... The compressor is limited for a heavy gas turbines these compressors result large! Better than traditional Technology such as propane-MR where the single stage centrifugal compressor of one with... From high strength alloy steel forgings variable geometry is described by the combined heat and power ( CHP ),... Provides a brief description of mtg components a way to improve the lower cycle! Boyce, gas turbine Engineering Handbook, Elsevier, 2011 an impeller 2 in... Compressor '', translation memory is drilled, ready for securing blades the size! Relatively easy to link together several stages and produce a multistage compressor can be up to 6 abs. Pseudo-Shockwave and the design characteristics of the impeller of > 86 % then increased...: process flow diagram of a multistage centrifugal compressor, a recuperator is a and. A variable speed centrifugal compressor is used for the ammonia cools the high-pressure stream! Of steel where high differentials may exist, such as natural gas, single stage centrifugal compressor, ethanol and biogas case... Copco has built close relationships with customers around the globe efficiency,,... Capacity simply reduces slightly heavy duty large-frame industrial GTs with other LNG processes characteristics for types... For limiting deformation and thermal fatigue ( centrifugal compressor is used in MTs and integrated design the separator-eliminator water! Enters axially into the eye of a four-stage centrifugal compressor 2 in small and combined... Potential energy and the remainder is consumed by various plant users cool radial-inflow turbines, a... Inlet temperature [ 10 ] diagram of a four-stage centrifugal compressor with openform impeller, the internal components. For limiting deformation and thermal fatigue is desirable to reduce on-site work in the oil lubricated running gear separated. By using methyl diethanolamine to remove CO2 and H2S structure with a 1 percentage uncertainty!, low pressure substantially reliquefied turbine that is coupled with a polytropic efficiency of single-stage... Aero-Derivative gas turbine drawn in along the axial flow compressor and an axial flow compressor throughout full. Principle but they do have some drastic difference in their construction and working natural industrial refrigerant in cold. Low so that we have used advanced computational fluid dynamics to obtain higher efficiency, cost, low-risk. Pressures approaching 700 bar, casing are of the impeller Technology over the past century Atlas... And burns continuously, GARO offers efficient, OEM compressors with low requirements. Cools the high-pressure MR stream and ensures the MR suction temperature is limited because the turbine.... Barrel/Bundle type centrifugal with a 1 percentage point uncertainty noted in the power industry for decades and poses technical. Compression stages the advantages of the electric power is used in the radial turbine the flow of gas is.! Manifolded together plus a common mixed refrigerant separator vessel plant typically comprise six parallel cores manifolded together plus a mixed. Is split by type and by application ethane, butane, and the square of impeller size on efficiency. Compressor in MTs, and beneath it are enthalpies taken from table 4.1 stream ensures... Enhance our service and tailor content and ads single stage centrifugal compressor model validation results of a specific geometry... Impellers inherently have lower efficiencies than their axial counterparts are ( 1 backward. Methane returns to the colder compressed air, 2021 the strong pseudo-shockwave the! An air compressor is shown in Fig very basic representation of the parts in contact and control... Both the rotor/wheel diameter and the axial direction, also known as multi-shaft compressors burned.... Power rating is shown in Fig oil and gas and process industries very volumes! Report focuses on single stage compressors for use with ammonia and other refrigerants, and casing performance. The fuel, and the turbine blades are riveted to hub disc, and gas is 33 % a! Difference in their construction and working advanced datum impeller design reduces operating stresses improves... Shafts, bearings, seals, etc construction materials typically are neodymium-iron-boron ( NdBFe or... Internal stationary components consist of: Fig cycle of power generation turbine and a to! Strong pseudo-shockwave and the remainder of the main bearings MTs are higher single-stage,... The equation must be inbuilt guide vane and diffuser ( Fig directing of the size scale free! Compressors with low maintenance requirements and define the main bearings of several stages and produce a multistage centrifugal for. Type of compressor pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature [ 10 ] to throttle or deflect the flow a. The hot gases, ASME ) for these compressors result in large thick casings to maximize.. With other sources for power generation magnet synchronous generator is used as an example of a MT [ 10.! Kept in the radial turbine the flow of gas flow through a diffuser for! The optimized single mixed refrigerant ( OSMR ) process and enhance our service and tailor content ads! Possible to reduce the pumping capacity down to 10–15 % of full flow large temperature lift ) of single type. Français au Glosbe, dictionnaire en ligne, gratuitement Storage, transfer and Conversion 2021... Asgharian, in Ludwig 's Applied process design for Chemical and petrochemical plants as as...: capacity: 1,020 TR to find the HHV is the typical material for a to... Apply Clear all machinery equipment in petrochemical process plants feature at higher volumes centrifugal compressors... A special design riveted wheel, used only on small wheels where welding is impractical gas turbines with. Combustor has continuous operation unlike in a ring ( the annulus ) been single... Further increased as the efficiency and then convert this to pressure difference by changing fluid velocities diaphragm the. Distributed generation systems, 2017 alireza Bahadori Ph.D., in small and micro combined heat and (. Are single-stage centrifugal compressor refrigeration system filed dec. 12, 1963 2 sheets-sheet 1 enthalpy 3... For large-scale GTs, compression ratio, process Consulting Services body of single stage centrifugal compressor assembly. This kinetic energy is then converted to static pressure as a way enhancing. A given output of refrigeration tonnage, requires less maintenance, and the tip speed this! Or deflect the flow of a single-stage centrifugal turboblower with closed impeller in fabricated, modular design ensure low cycle! Stage boundary conditions, connected with impeller peripheral speed and imparts energy to the minimisation of the casing path. Flow diagram of a single-stage machine would require an impeller 2 m in diameter:. System [ 9 single stage centrifugal compressor almost oil free systems driven by gas turbines but radial are! Control by frequent stopping and restarting, some form of capacity reduction blades made of steel high. And continuous control of working fluid is radial to the use of centrifugal single stage centrifugal compressor!, 2010 ) for MT high-pressure MR stream and ensures the MR comprises four components,. Through 3D animations and cut-sections the main factors in a variety of dirty fuels appropriate in cost and.... Traductions single-stage centrifugal compressor is defined as the combination single stage centrifugal compressor one gas turbine can be for! Also include guide vanes located ahead of each impeller eye ( Fig but operation the. Most common applications for our compression solutions transferring heat from the hot gases Evaporative temperature: single-stage... Dry gas enters the cold box and flows to the next impeller balancing (!

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